Prof Mahmoud Hafez is a pioneer in patient-specific instrument (PSI) technology (3D planning & printing for joint replacement). He was initially involved in developing a robot for knee surgery in 1998, with a team of surgeons, engineers and computer scientists from Hull, Dundee, and Loughborough Universities, UK. During his SpR training, he started an MD project at Leeds University in 2001 resulted in developing the novel PSI technique. He learned the theory and practice of navigation, AI, robotics, simulation and VR during his CAOS fellowship in Pittsburgh and Toronto (2004-2006). Currently, he is a Prof & head of the orthopaedic Dept, October 6 University, Cairo. In Egypt, he founded an R&D lab and filed 20 patents for the use of PSI in arthroplasty, tumours, trauma, deformities and infection. Now, he is using PSI routinely for complex and bilateral knee replacement in a cost-effective manner.